Sunday, March 24, 2013

Test Taking Tips

I ask that you decide to agree/disagree with each statement -- thumbs up/down or ask question before moving on - helps encourage engagement (yes, even if you are reading this alone). 

Your brain can process 120-150 WPM (output) and 350-500 WPM (input) - That's 3X in vs. out
- it takes focus
Treat test preparation like a job that pays well (and it will).
- if you don't agree or believe it, not relevant, it's testable (and you may need it some day)
*thumbs up/down
Study as if you were preparing to teach others and the quality of their learning would affect you monetarily (positive) or in terms of liability (negative)
- we learn by teaching (and preparing to do so
*thumbs up/down
Catch yourself when you are "just" reading (or listening) and not learning -- go back further than you think but not all the way back
*thumbs up/down

Read/review in different positions and places
- stand, sit, prone on stomach, etc to adjust view (memory and alertness trigger)
        - practice this now -- everyone sit (chair and floor if able) and stand/lean against chair/wall
- study in living room, dining room, car, spouse's car, front porch, tree house, beach
- review information on paper (handwritten and typed) on computer, smart phone, tablet (may allow added tax deduction -- consult your CPA)
- study at different times of day (your best time, unusual time)
- allow your subconscious some leeway (dreams, ideas in the middle of the night)
*thumbs up/down

Associate topic/answer with the physical/visual slide -- personalize (minimally) slides/handouts with notes, doodles, etc.
- spend part of review time (after in-depth study) just visualizing the slides/notes
- for lecturers/lecture notes, when presenter
        - adds explanation, makes joke, comment, tells story
        - (presenters not there to teach, but to help you remember - paradigm)
- brief note on slide to remind you of the meat of the slide (vs. the garnish from presenter)
- like juggling many cases/issues by using mental "folders" (helps when questions jump back/forth with topics)
*thumbs up/down

Focus on what is taught/written/industry standard, not what done (if different)
*thumbs up/down

(You) Record the slides/notes/review material. Use 15 minute blocks to record and review/listen, with approx 5 minutes in between.
       - Audio
        - Video
- Play at home, in "reading" room, in car, while walking (not in traffic), just before sleeping
- speed it up sometimes (we process up to 150 WPM out, 500 in - 3X)
- work at (and a little above) your normal pace - we think at 500-600 WPM, so little concern for explosion/implosion
*thumbs up/down

Reverse/reposition the information (make topic the answer and answer the topic)
*thumbs up/down

Study groups - in person, on phone, by chat (if you type relatively fast), AND online
*thumbs up/down

- speaking of different media/memory triggers, has everyone practiced adjusting view?
*thumbs up/down

Sleep well
Eat well
Relax - deep breaths 
Sleep well
Eat well
Relax - deep breaths 

What do you think?

Wednesday, August 08, 2012

technohood watch - what a concept!

I am working on a weeks-long stream of consciousness and needed to write it out - it's great how that often works. The concept (technohood watch) is a variation of neighborhood watch (no, not like in the one in Sanford, FL with George Zimmerman).  Technohood Watch is where average, everyday citizens with superior technological abilities act in a way that they may be seen as superheroes by the less informed, less technologically aware.

In essence, they are living their lives, going about their business, see criminal activity going on, and choose to report it.

The police are not always the first to see crime happening. I know this comes as a shock to many a criminal (and perhaps a few criminal justice students) but without a crystal ball, a time machine, or the ability to read minds, the police most often identify crime when average, everyday citizens 1) observe crime or evidence thereof, and 2) take time out of their busy day to notify the police.

As I noted in The odds of finding a "pattern of criminal gang activity,"the odds of this happening are surpisingly low, so to be blunt about it -- the police need all the help they can get.

In addition to the limitations of their inherent superhuman mind-reading powers (and the absence of a crystal ball or time machine), police officers are constrained by the U.S. Constitution. In relevant part, these Amendments limit what the police can do:
  • 1st freedom of speech and right to assemble/associate
  • 2nd right to bear arms
  • 4th unreasonable searches and seizures
  • 4th search warrants based on probable cause
  • 5th/14th due process/self-incrimination
  • 6th right to confront accuser 
. . . but if someone doesn't work for or act as an agent of the government those restrictions don't apply. There are many out-and-about professionals who are more likely to see criminal activity: cable and telephone installers, pest control professionals, newspaper delivery people, U.S. Postal Service (and Fedex, UPS, etc) carriers and drivers, meter readers, and my personal "favorite" -- door-to-door salespersons.

But technohood watch is designed for another population -- the folks who browse, peruse, occupy, explore, and otherwise engage in the space between my computer and your tablet -- between my server and your ipod -- between your xbox and my . . . you get the picture. This may not be a space where no man has gone before but it's definitely where few can go and not get lost.

So while folks are going through their day and they see a crime and feel the need to report it, they are engaging in technohood watch. It's related to USAonWatch and somewhat like Citizen Observer, but it's different. There are no meetings with the police or prosecutors to obtain guidance or get information like with Infraguard. It is complementary to all of these activities, but it's very different.

Technohood Watch is a crime prevention program that educates citizens on the application of basic legal principles and common sense. It teaches citizens how to help themselves and their community by identifying and reporting suspicious activity they see during their normal daily activities. It provides citizens with the opportunity to make their world safer and improve their quality of life. Technohood watch groups focus on observation and awareness to identify, report, or prevent crime and employ strategies that range from social interaction to active techno-patrols.

Technohood Watch has no membership requirements, as there are no members. The "program" is simply a venue for information and education. There are no connections between the learners and any police or similar government employee, agent, or representative. No directions are provided to the authors of Technohood Watch alerts, advisories, or other information or to the readers, and no one is targeted to investigate certain people, property, or activities. Technohood Watch participants may identify a child pornography ring one day and a cyberterrorist the next. It's a focus on the space, not the crime, with an emphasis on reporting.

What do you think? More -- @technohoodwatch

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Logically and strategically counter violent extremism VS jumping to conclusions and calling it news

Many pundits, talking heads, and self-proclaimed experts are attacking the results of a recently published, grant-funded study on How Islamist Extremists Quote the Qur’an

The authors noted that Islamist extremists make heavy use of the Qur’an in their strategic communication. The report raised questions about the veracity of claims often made by analysts. They concluded that verses extremists cite from the Qur’an do not suggest an aggressive offensive foe seeking domination and conquest of unbelievers, as is commonly assumed. Instead they deal with themes of victimization, dishonor, and retribution. They recommended that the West abandon claims that Islamist extremists seek world domination, focus on counteracting or addressing claims of victimage, emphasize alternative means of deliverance, and work to undermine the “champion” image sought by extremists.

I suggest folks actually read the report before jumping to conclusions -- it could be a great piece of strategy if taken in context.

It appears to me, having taken more than a couple of seconds to examine the recommendations, that they did not make these recommendations because they were wrong, but because they defeat the (strategic) purpose. READ ON!

Consider this the Cliff's Notes and the Rest of the Story.

The authors offer four practical implications for strategic communication to counter violent extremism:

Abandon claims that Islamist extremists seek world domination.
  • These claims also undermine the credibility of Western voices, because the audience knows that extremist arguments are really about victimage and deliverance.
Focus on counteracting or addressing claims of victimage.
  • Of course, where these claims are true, they should be acknowledged and addressed. Otherwise, when claims of harm are demonstrably false, they can possibly be disputed factually. 
  • Another strategy is to emphasize cases where the West has come to the aid of Muslims (or attempted to do so), as in the cases of Kosovo and the various Arab Spring conflicts. 
  • Finally since Qur’an verses are used as analogies to present day events to justify violent behavior, it may be possible to undermine the analogies themselves
Emphasize alternative means of deliverance.
  • Even if one accepts the premise that Muslims are in need of deliverance, it does not follow that violence is the preferred means of achieving it. 
  • Here again, the Arab Spring conflicts provide a rich reservoir of such alternatives (e.g. nonviolent new media campaigns). 
  • Late last year the State Department’s Digital Outreach Team posted a video on YouTube12 mocking Ayman al-Zawahiri using clips from an al-Qaeda video 
    • These quotes were intercut with scenes from the Arab Spring protests in Egypt.
Work to undermine the “champion” image sought by extremists.
  • Extremists use a deliverance narrative to position themselves as the champion that can deliver the community from evil. However, as we have argued elsewhere, extremists do little that is champion-like. 
  • Two-thirds to three-fourths of civilian deaths in Afghanistan are caused by anti-government forces. 
  • So there is an argument to be made that even if one believes that violent action is required to deliver Muslims, Islamist extremists are not competent to occupy the role of champion.
What do you think?

Sunday, January 01, 2012

New issues for the new year

It's been a while since the ideas bouncing around in my head were directly related to any of the topics in courses I was teaching. Coincidentally, that intersection is occurring in the coming (Spring 2012) semester. I am teaching at Austin Peay State University in the School of Technology & Public Management Criminal Justice - Homeland Security.

Towards the end of the last semester, I learned of an opportunity to supplement my endeavors with technology for the students, and applied for supplemental funds to get quite a few iPads, iPods, and related accessories. Here's the summary:
  • The overarching purpose of the proposed purchase was to provide faculty alternatives to expanding the learning environment and disseminating course and program-related material. 
  • The requested equipment will be used by department faculty to enhance and expand the learning environment for all students – both on-ground and online. 
  • The equipment will be used to create and process audio and video recordings, photographs, and other media to document the many tangible ways the community and our world reflect the many topics studied in the disciplines within the department. 
  • Students will be encouraged to create and produce digital media both individually and in groups. 
    • Examples of this include documentaries of real-world events, interviews, or role-playing to provide innovative scholarship and a sense of the available technology that can be used to augment their work in their chosen professions. 
  • Faculty will be encouraged to and assisted with increasing their understanding of the ways technology can enhance the learning environment. 
    • Examples of faculty use include recording podcasts of in-class lectures, videos of lectures and the aforementioned student endeavors, interviews, and presentations, and engaging in qualitative research to further university, college, and departmental pedagogical objectives. 
  • It is anticipated that many of the productions of these endeavors will be uploaded to public-access websites like iTunesU
  • Documentation of the continued use of this equipment and evolution of the use thereof is planned with eventual presentation in a variety of academic forums, include Austin Peay State University’s Innovative Professor conference.
We got approved, and though it was not for the whole amount, we will be able to get enough for a really good start.

This post starts the informal, public documentation of this adventure.

I have sent/will be sending out this email/post to as many of my contacts and their contacts as possible. I would love to get your assistance in this endeavor:

Seeking LE organization willing to work virtually with supervised university students. 
The goal is to give students more exposure to real officers and police administrators and fewer TV cops. 
Are you willing to partner with a handful of students with retired-LE professor oversight on a small project tailored to your department/team needs? All project ideas considered, prefer those reated to mobile technology, with no anticipated cost to your organization. 
Time commitment very flexible and easily tailored to your availability, extended over approx. 15-week semester. Please let me know what your interests and apprehensions include.
This is a nationwide & international inquiry -- communication by email, phone, etc. depending on preference of LE organization.
This will be a work in progress throughout the semester. I plan to present the rough ideas to the class and get their input on choosing groups of 3-5, designing a group project, creating a grading rubric, and then having individual students grade (assist with grading) each group project.

I plan to think out loud here, so comments and follow up would be most appreciated. If you want to get some ideas, check out Christa Miller's work at

What do you think?



Saturday, September 03, 2011

define disjuncture

You know it's the right time to learn when there's disjuncture:
The optimal “zone”— when time seems to STOP 
 When our repertoire is no longer able to cope with our situation . .
Tension with our environment
Establishes a foundation for real learning.
 Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a Comprehensive Theory of Human Learning. New York: Routledge.

Monday, April 11, 2011

Personal Managerial Philosophy

Personal Managerial Philosophy

A managerial philosophy serves as the framework for one’s implementation and operational strategy. The philosophy used by the leader is not a theory that worked for someone else. It is not the plan that is implemented, though it serves as the foundation for the plan. A managerial philosophy does not change based on the operation or the number of people involved in the operation. Managerial philosophies are consistent, recognizable, and unique to the individual. My personal managerial philosophy includes a focus on leadership, from the front, surrounded by brilliant specialists, on whose strengths I capitalize. I demonstrate my respect to them by explaining my vision up front and encouraging them to take the time to provide quality output, while encouraging them to have a sense of ownership.

Management or Leadership?

I learned early in life that there was a significant difference between management and leadership. Many of my teachers in school and all of my bosses and supervisors seemed to operate exclusively in the management mode. They first laid out the requirements for the job or assignment, then made sure they were heard, and then backed away, returning only to make an adjustment to the process or to explain why something attempted without their direct input and oversight would not work properly. This style of management seemed to work in some situations, but for the most part, I think it created nothing more than a huge pause while those expected to continue the work wondered how the application of hastily transferred directions with limited opportunity for explanation or feedback should proceed. Management in application seemed to be cold, calculated, and tremendously ineffective.

A manager is someone who plans, organizes, leads, and controls human, material, or financial systems for an organization (Hellriegal, Jackson, & Slocum, 2005). Management involves the tasks and activities used in directing an organization (Hellriegal, et al., 2005). According to Hellriegal, et al. (2005), managers should have several basic competencies: communication, planning and administration, teamwork, strategic action, global awareness, and self-management.

It was not until I started a self-study on leadership and success several years ago that I realized there was a huge chasm of difference between management and leadership. Stephen Covey is known for distinguishing between the two by clarifying the roles of each: You manage things. You lead people (Covey, 1990, & 2004). Hellriegal, et al. (2005) considered leading to be the process of getting others to perform necessary tasks by motivating them to achieve organizational goals. Covey (2004) explained that leadership was having a broader and deeper vision of the operation than that possessed by management, and that managing is for those things without freedom to choose, like costs, information, time, systems and processes. Presumably, according to the Covey interpretation, true leaders serve the organization by being the best they can be at whatever they are doing, and encouraging others to do the same.

Accordingly, I will describe my leadership philosophy with the statement, “I lead people the way they demonstrate their need to be led.” I call it the “as necessary philosophy.” I do not per se ascribe to any specific mainstream management style or philosophy. I have found bits and pieces of various management fads to be helpful, especially after they have received widespread acceptance and have begun to morph into something different than the original, usually out of necessity based on the need for application in a different situation than the one for which they were originally designed (Goeke & Offodile, 2005). This philosophy has progressively served me well – the more I understand it, the better it serves! I recognize that I need to improve first on my understanding of it and second on my method of conveying it to those for whom I fill a leadership role.

Lead From the Front

Although there is less protection from the environment, harsh elements, and adversaries, I am convinced that the best leaders are leading from the forward, out-front position, at least most of the time. There will be times that leading can be accomplished from the middle (Maxwell, 2006), and some leadership can be accomplished from the rear, but unless the leader is in the mentoring mode and is monitoring another in their leadership role, the front is the place where the leader needs to be. This position shows that the leader knows where he or she is going, is confident in his or her ability to identify and defend against danger, and trusts those behind (following) him.

Caution must be the watchword in this position, as there is a deeply rooted industrial age belief that leadership is best demonstrated when the leader is the central and most visible figure (Parks, 2005). Rost (1990) described the twentieth century’s myth of leadership: “leadership as good management” (cited in Parks, 2005, p. 203). This present-day myth is reminiscent of and reflects the mindset of the dominant role managers held in the industrial age of a century ago, when Frederick Taylor’s scientific management dominated efficiency-seeking, bureaucratic organizations and human rights and environmental concerns were often ignored (Weymes, 2004).

In Rost’s interpretation of the myth, good management is the “apex of industrial organization and an industrial economy is unthinkable without it” (Parks, 2005, p. 203). The focus was on managerial leadership based on dominance, efficiency, and productivity, not people (Parks, 2005). Though appropriate during the industrial age, this philosophy has little value in most workplaces today and no value in the workplace of tomorrow.

Hellriegal, et al. (2005) discussed different responsibilities for managers in different positions in and layers of the organization. They described first-line managers as those with direct responsibility for production, while middle managers were responsible for setting goals, based on the goals of top management, for the first line managers to produce (Hellriegal, et al., 2005). They indicate that the vast majority of the top line managers’ time was spent planning and leading, with little time left to devote to managing (Hellriegal, et al., 2005). Of the competencies mentioned previously, they noted that communication, both formal and informal, was the most fundamental of all (Hellriegal, et al., 2005). That indicated the high importance of relationships between managers and others, both within and outside their organization, but seemed to conflict with their use of the term “management” to describe three very different roles.

Inherent in the front-of-the-ranks leader is the need to lead by example. When a leader leads from the front, everyone being led can see every move, every turn, and every hesitation. If the leader is trusted, the followers will move when they move, turn when they turn, and hesitate when they hesitate. The led cannot always see every thought or emotion, however. Communication allows leaders to convey the thought process guiding their moves. Followers need their leaders to turn around periodically so they can see and here what the leader is feeling and thinking. It is imperative that leaders, as much as they are able, take the time to explain why and how they decide what they decide. That requires face-to-face time and a devotion to communication.

Leaders that lead by example may not have much of their own original material. In those cases, leaders can still lead by example – they just have to use (temporarily) someone else’s example. Following in another’s footsteps can be done even if the placement of those footsteps is a memory. Some of my best challenges in leadership were met with actions I felt a previous leadership mentor would have made had they been there by my side, looking over my shoulder. As I began my venture into more significant leadership roles, I compiled a list of all the memorable leaders I had (not just the “good” ones). I then examined the qualities I felt made them memorable, and compiled a list of foundational principles on which to build. I was only able to build that list because those leaders were visible and took the time to communicate their logic and rationale while (or shortly after) they were making decisions that affected our organization.

Surround yourself with brilliant specialists

It was not long before I realized that I neither could nor should be expected to know everything about everything. That was initially a very humbling revelation, and required an immediate response (after I got over the pride crash). I was in the middle of a situation that required several small steps to be completed in preparation for a larger operation, and I first noted that in order to make the whole thing work using my traditional methods, I would have to be in several places at the same time. I approached my subordinates with a somewhat toned-down version of this revelation and asked for their suggestions. Their responses reflected nothing in the way of panic, and I noticed a group movement toward problem-solving. I immediately realized that each of them had expertise in a variety of areas, but primary interest in only a few, and they all seemed to know what each others strengths were (or at least those tasks the others knew better than they did).

It was not long before the small assignments had all been chosen for completion and a timeline had been set. I was pleased to see that the assignments were carried out to the letter, in most cases without any oversight on my part, and in all cases better than I could have done myself. It was comforting to see that in many cases the leader in each of these subgroups also had an assistant who was learning from them while assisting with the task. This was my first revelation that “managing means making it possible for others to work easily and productively, while at the same time bringing out the best in them” (Senguder, 2002). I was able to provide an easy and productive work environment in most cases by staying out of their way.

Surrounding yourself with specialists does not always mean surrounding yourself with those who agree with you. This practice should be avoided, as it often results in uninformed decisions and few in the leadership roles that are willing to take responsibility. Leaders should seek out those with whom they can work, not those with whom they usually agree. It is important to balance competence with candor, and all on the team should recognize who possesses the ultimate decision-making power. It is not necessary (or advisable) for all to agree on everything.

Capitalize on strengths

Capitalizing on strengths is important for both the individual and their team. Capitalizing on individual strengths means finding what one is good at and spending most of one’s time doing that thing. It means determining where one’s strengths, gifts, interests, and abilities intersect and spending the majority of one’s productive time in that activity.

From a team perspective, capitalizing on strengths means delegating tasks to those who have identified the above intersection in such as a way as to capitalize on the synergy of multiple team players. Each shares a collective responsibility while holding individual responsibility for their chosen task. There may be times when one who is not the “best” at completing a task would be the one chosen to complete it. Those times should be reserved for non-critical opportunities.

Aristotle has been quoted as saying "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, there lies your vocation." Having spent a fair amount of time in my life operating outside of my talents and, often times, outside the needs of the world, I personally appreciate this revelation. From a leadership perspective, I think the challenge is found when there are several team members with similar talents. The solution appears to be creating a work environment where those with overlapping strengths can showcase their strengths while complementing the strengths of others.

Stephen Covey (2004) identified a concept that was similar to that defined by Aristotle, which he called the 8th Habit. He identified the 8th Habit as finding one’s voice, and inspiring others to do the same. Covey (2004) explained that one’s voice was that thing or thing(s) one does so well that it appears no one else has any business doing it if you are available. Voice is the “unique personal significance” that is “revealed when we face our greatest challenges and which makes us equal to them” (Covey, 2004, p.5). Covey (2004) explained that one’s voice is found at the nexus of talent, passion, need, and conscience, and that each of us has an insatiable need to find it, though some live their whole life without doing so. In order to complete the 8th Habit, one needs to demonstrate leadership, in order to be able to inspire others to find (an exercise) their voice.

The second part of the 8th Habit is inspiring others to find their voice (Covey, 2004). Inspiring others to find their voice takes place in the action mode. It does not occur simply by being a good role model or by demonstrating leadership. It is based on a concerted and strategic effort to demonstrate leadership at every opportunity. It is proactive. It entails combining many leadership traits with opportunities to demonstrate them in the results of your efforts. It results in the development of leaders.

Spend time explaining up front

Leadership is not about providing a list of tasks and requiring others to complete them. It is not about running everything or getting recognition for the work of others. It is about guiding a team of people to a mutual goal and sharing your experience with others along the way. It is about building up the capability of others by helping them experience the process, with you there, available for questions, clarification, and discussion. It is about taking the time with others to ensure they could make wise decisions in your absence.
Explaining up front does not refer to the position of the leader in relation to the led. The focus here is on the time chosen to explain the vision, plan, and desired activity. The theme underlying the need for explanation is perspective. It is often one’s perspective that guides how one sees the world. That perspective could be from a micro view, related to the self-management and team competencies identified in Hellriegal, et al. (2005) or from a macro view, as explained in the strategic action and global awareness competencies (Hellriegal, et al., 2005). The perspective of the leader may never be completely shared by the led, but it must be understood.

Large-scale perspectives are fueled by change catalysts with a vision for growth beyond just the organization. Senge (2006) describes the forgotten leadership role as the one who designs the organization. In the design role, vision is important. If the captain on a ship wants to turn the ship within a set space and the one who designed the ship did not provide for such a turn, the perceived leader (the captain) cannot accomplish his desires. His inabilities do not reflect negatively on his leadership, but he is limited nonetheless. Avoiding this type of dilemma requires the use of systems thinking by all leaders, including the designer. Senge (2006) describes the process of systems thinking as The Fifth Discipline, following the disciplines of Personal Mastery, using Mental Models, Building Shared Vision, and Team Learning (Senge, 2006). Systems thinking involves understanding the system by contemplating the whole, not any individual part (Senge, 2006). Senge’s focus on systems thinking encourages leaders to take a step back, to consider what may not appear directly in front of them, to attempt to understand how smaller contributions can change the larger collection.

Do it once, do it right, never have to do it again

Do it once, do it right, never have to do it again is not about the perfectionist perspective. It is about putting your best foot forward, taking your best shot in the beginning, and doing what you can to avoid duplicating your efforts. Leaders owe it to those they lead to do the best possible job the first time. An organization that operates using this principle has a focus on quality, efficiency, and preservation of the organization’s reputation for both.

This principle is often confused with the myth that the leader is always right. I have seen this practiced often in higher education, where leadership is seen more as a duty than as a calling or an honor (Askling & Stensaker, 2002). The captain of a ship can be right in his order to turn the ship in a specific direction, but if the order is not conveyed to and understood by the individual responsible for the turning, the ship continues in the original direction. That means that the captain was right in his desire to execute, but wrong in his trust that the crew was prepare and that he was aware of the limitations.

Take ownership and make sure it is taken by others

The responsibilities of leaders are varied, and many might suggest that ownership of a plan is inherently delegated to the leader. It is important to note that in the traditional management role, ownership is counterintuitive to the role of those managed. Consequently, this observation may erroneously be limited to leaders. The error lies in the perception that only leaders can and do care enough about the organization or its operation to find a sense of ownership. Those within the organization (as was determined with the scientific management theory) are deemed to have little concern for the organization.

The challenge here is often the second part of the equation -- make sure ownership is taken by others, not just given to them. Think of the relay race where both team members are running (briefly) at the same speed and the one with the baton stretches out an arm. The second one grasps at the baton and takes off at lightning speed . . . with nothing in hand, and the baton falls to the ground. What does the first team member do? Turn around and walk back to the coach to complain about the ineffective handoff? Do they trust that the second will grab the baton and just stand there waiting patiently? No, the first oversees the situation to ensure the baton has been properly retrieved. The handoff is not complete without a transfer. It is the same with taking ownership!

People are most inspired when they believe in their mutual cause, sharing an organizational dream that promotes a better society with others (Weymes, 2004). However, dreams are not the solution to leadership challenges – feeling a sense of ownership in the organization is. This does not mean that one must own part of the organization or that the profits of the organization must result in profit to the individual. The ownership need can be fulfilled with the feeling that each person is an integral, yet separate part of the team. This may be accomplished by an entrepreneurial flavor, where each person feels and acts like a business partner, with a requisite demonstration of integrity and responsibility to their co-workers and their customers (Hakim, 2003).

Organizations that operate with this collective mindset are focused on providing a positive experience for everyone who is exposed to the organization. This mindset, then, is demonstrated to those with whom the organization has agreements, provides services, or produces supplies. Andros Consultants, a Canadian business-consulting firm specializing in assessment and coaching, strategy development, and program design and implementation provides the following guidelines for development of a personal management strategy:

1. Shift from managing people to managing a process
2. Develop and implement strategy, driven by Objectives, to produce satisfaction
3. Define the process in value-added and ‘real contribution’ terms
4. Manage the Changes
5. Measurement is critical
6. Focus on the Environment
7. Encourage Self-Management
8. Communication is the Life Blood
9. Processes require Balance

As I further consider what part of my personal managerial philosophy needs improvement, I will use each of these guidelines to strengthen my foundation.

Andros Consultants (2002). A Managerial Philosophy / Strategy. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from
Askling, B. & Stensaker, B. (2002). Academic Leadership: Prescriptions, Practices and Paradoxes.
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Covey, S. D. (2004). The 8th Habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New York: Franklin Covey Company/Free Press
Goeke, R. J. & Offodile, O. F. (2005). Forecasting management philosophy life cycles: A comparative
study of Six Sigma and TQM. The Quality Management Journal. 12(2), 34.
Hakim, C. (2003). We are all self-employed: Coaching for success and satisfaction. The journal for
Quality and Participation. 26(1), 23.
Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S. E., & Slocum Jr., J. W. (2005). Management: A competency-based approach (10th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomson Learning.
Maxwell, J. C. (2006). The 360 Degree Leader: Developing Your Influence from Anywhere in the Organization. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Parks, S. D. (2005). Leadership can be taught: A bold approach for a complex world. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Rost, 1990; cited in Parks, S. D. (2005). Leadership can be taught: A bold approach for a complex world. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday
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Weymes, E. (2004). A challenge to traditional management theory. Foresight: the Journal of Futures
Studies, Strategic Thinking and Policy 6(6), 338.